3 (1) | A (7) | B (7) | C (16) | D (11) | E (2) | F (4) | G (2) | H (4) | I (7) | J (1) | K (1) | L (4) | M (7) | N (2) | O (1) | P (9) | Q (2) | R (9) | S (13) | T (3) | U (3) | V (2) | W (1)


To state or write something that someone else has said or written using different words. Paraphrasing is useful when you can say what the author intended to say in fewer or clearer words. You may choose to paraphrase instead of quote an author, but you will still need to cite your source.


One of a pair of marks ( ) that are used around a word, phrase, sentence, number, etc. — usually plural (parentheses). Parenthesis can be used around keywords and search terms when searching databases, library catalogs, and search engines like Google. They are helpful for grouping synonyms or related terms with the Boolean operator OR, but can also be used with other Boolean connector words.


A file format developed by Adobe Acrobat® that allows files to be transmitted from one computer to another while retaining their original appearance both on-screen and when printed. An acronym for Portable Document Format.

Peer-reviewed article

An article that was closely examined by a panel of reviewers who are experts on that topic. Reviewers look at research methods, significance of a paper’s contribution to the existing literature, and citations. Papers published in peer-reviewed journals are expert-approved, and the most authoritative sources of information for college-level research papers. 

Peer-Reviewed Journal

Peer review is a process by which editors have experts in a field review books or articles submitted for publication by the experts’ peers. Peer review helps to ensure the quality of an information source. A peer-reviewed journal is also called a refereed journal or scholarly journal.


An information source published in multiple parts at regular intervals (daily, weekly, monthly, biannually). Journals, magazines, and newspapers are all periodicals. See also Serial.

Pop Shop

A section of University Library on the second floor that holds popular books, magazines, movies, and music.

Primary Source

A primary source is information from an event or person that has no analysis. For example, a person's diary or a photograph of a sporting event are considered primary sources.


1. A publisher is a for-profit company or non-profit organization that publishes and disseminates (shares) an author’s work.

2. Bloggers are considered self-publishers because they put their own work online and share it publically.